Gender Differences In Early Development

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October 18, 2020
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October 18, 2020

Gender Differences In Early Development

Week 2 130– Writing Assignment

Gender Differences In Early Development

Chapter 12 in the course textbook discusses the impacts of caregivers
and culture on gender development in early childhood. Based on the
textbook chapter and one peer-reviewed journal article, write a paper
discussing the gender differences in development from a psychoanalytic
and systems perspective.

Your paper should account for or reply to each of the following:

· Identify a gender development-related issue of critical importance to individuals and society.

· Summarize a psychoanalytic and a systems perspective approach to, and related positions on, this issue.

· Compare and contrast the two theories’ views on how gender
development occurs, identifying and explaining implications for
scholarly and professional practice.

· Present and defend your position as to which theory is most
relevant and valid with respect to your issue as you have explained it.

Your paper should be 1200-1600 words in length and support your
thinking by citing and integrating at least two peer-reviewed journal
articles and at least one real life example.

Instruction: Week 2

Introduction: Physical Development, Wellness, and Sexual Identity in Adolescence and Across the Lifespan

This week will focus on physical development, health and wellness,
gender identity, and sexuality across the lifespan. Subject matter
includes, but is not limited to, brain development in early childhood
and the impact of the environment on it; patterns of physical growth;
physical aging; nutrition and eating disorders; stress; sexual
maturation; and social influences on gender development.

Required Resources

Required Text

Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016). Understanding development: A lifespan perspective. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

· Chapter 5:  Physical Development: Brain and Body Section 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4

· Chapter 6:  Health and Wellness

· Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality

Required References

American Psychological Association. (2011). Practice
guidelines for LGB clients: Guidelines for psychological practice with
lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients (Links to an external site.).
Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/guidelines.aspx
(Skim and familiarize yourself with the 21 Guidelines for LGBT Clients.)

Finkelstein, S. (2006).
20/20: Exploring sexual orientation: Gay or straight, Part 1 (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. New York, NY: CBS Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoZoRbP-0WM

Finkelstein, S. (2006).
20/20: Exploring sexual orientation: Gay or straight, Part 2 (Links to an external site.)
[Video file]. New York, NY: CBS Corporation. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WTLAof9oXCI

Recommended Resources

Recommended References

American Museum of Natural History. (2011).
Science bulletins: Understanding the essential bond (Links to an external site.)
[Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kwxjfuPlArY

Khan Academy. (2014).
Erikson’s psychosocial development: Individuals and society (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SIoKwUcmivk

Mercer, J. (2011). Attachment theory and its vicissitudes: Toward an updated theory. Theory & Psychology, 21(25), 25-45. doi: 10.1177/0959354309356136 (Available through SAGE Journals).

Siegel, D. J. (2004). Attachment and self-understanding: Parenting with the brain in mind. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(4), 273-285. (PsychINFO: 2004-17965-002).

thibs. (2009).
The strange situation: Mary Ainsworth (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU

Guidance Report

As aforementioned: This week will focus on physical development,
health and wellness, gender identity, and sexuality across the lifespan.
Subject matter includes, but is not limited to, brain development in
early childhood and the impact of the environment on it; patterns of
physical growth; physical aging; nutrition and eating disorders; stress;
sexual maturation; and social influences on gender development.

As you can see, we have a LOT of topics to explore, so this week I will focus on eating disorders for our guidance report.

Psychology Students….Ponder this:

We read about popularity and rejection and this is just one of many
areas that is persistent and children/adolescents cannot control it.
Eating disorders have a lot to do with control. Let’s face it–kids can
be cruel and the pressure in our society to be “perfect” or the ideal
form of a female is not getting better through time and this can
perpetuate a lot of the pressure that girls (AND boys) are under at this
age. Home life and parenting style are also significant contributors to
the onset of these disorders. In addition, there are certain
personality traits that are more prone to eating disorders than others
(obsessiveness, compulsiveness, shyness, etc.). You can probably
identify anorexia by seeing the frame of the individual diminish
overtime, but you will not be as likely to identify bulimia. First, the
attending professional needs to identify which one he or she is dealing
with in the individual’s case.

In our current society, this may be a little unrealistic with the
preoccupation on the perfect female form, but it is a healthy and
IMPORTANT example for mothers, sisters, aunts, and other same sex
influences and role models to have a sense of self-acceptance and
self-love that the daughters can emulate. My daughter is 18 now but she
has been talking for YEARS about girls in her class watching their carbs
so as not to get fat, counting calories because they are fat, etc., and
literally she has been hearing this since she was 7. Some little girls
have unfortunate role models at home and/or turn to poor role models in
the media. What can schools do to address this for kids not getting a
lot of guidance on this at home or getting the WRONG guidance?

Human Services students….Ponder this:

What do parents do if affordability is an issue? Lack of insurance? 
Also, what do you think of this possible correlation between eating
disorders and income?

http://www.eatingdisordersonline.com/news/eating-disorders/there-may-be-a-link-between-eating-disorders-and-financial-income (Links
to an external site.)

Unfortunately, treatment cost can be a major issue for many families
regardless of insurance coverage. According to Alderman (2010), many
insurance companies deny payment for eating disorder treatments due to a
lack of clear treatment plan or medical diagnosis. For families in this
situation, financial assistance is offered through many treatment
programs, research trials may offer free treatment for qualified
candidates, and case managers can assist families with insurance
companies (Alderman, 2010). In addition, programs like the Eating
Disorder Foundation offers free support groups to help individuals
struggling with eating disorders.

The potential link between eating disorders and income holds merit,
especially in relation to low-income ethnic groups. Many adolescents
take on the burdens of their parents’ financial situation, but
individuals from cultural groups that maintain importance of family over
self may feel additional stress. According to Kail and Cavanaugh
(2014), Latino Americans identify as a collective, family-first group.
With this mindset, adolescents may feel unintentional pressure to
support their family’s financial status by intaking less food.  

But let’s get back to cost and what to do about it… So, what do you
think of this?: The Elisa Project is a charitable foundation that aims
to provide support, education, awareness and advocacy for families and
loved ones suffering from an eating disorder.  As you likely know from
this week’s material and researching on your own—-treatment is very
expensive! The Elisa Project has interesting suggestions for families
who cannot afford treatment, which would really be MOST families. They
suggest looking into psychiatric departments of nearby medical schools
(and even psychology schools with PhD/PsyD students), as they would have
student-run clinics and counseling at low or no cost. Participating in
research studies for eating disorders is another suggestion, but a bit
riskier.  The site in regard to payment: http://www.theelisaproject.org/paying-for-treatment.cfm (Links to an external site.)

Alderman, L. (2010). Treating Eating Disorders and Paying for it.
Retrieved
from https://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/04/health/04patient.html?_r=1&ref=health

Kail, R. V., & Cavanaugh, J. C. (2014). Essentials of human development: A lifespan view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth 

ALL students….Ponder this:

Did you discover anything pertaining to the rise in statistics in our
country related to anorexia and bulimia about 60+ years ago and where
we are with this now? This diagnosis has obviously not been around from
the beginning of time, so it would not be possible to compare to several
hundred years ago. I don’t think it is a stretch to say our media and
societal focus on perfection is doing a fine job of perpetuating this
horrific diagnosis. It also extends to parenting style though… What
are YOUR thoughts?

This is interesting. Check it out!:

McCombs, E. (2016) Woman Poses in varying pants sizes to make a point about body image. Retrieved
from:
https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/woman-poses-in-varying-pants-sizes-to-make-a-point-about-body-image_us_5851f65ce4b0732b82feec30

Here is more on eating disorders:

Ekern, J. (2017). Eating disorders: Causes, symptoms, signs, & treatment help. Eating Disorder Hope (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from: https://www.eatingdisorderhope.com/information/eating-disorder

First, if you are not familiar with the Blue Zone research, I
encourage you to investigate this.  In short, the Blue Zone project – a
years-long investigation funded in part by the National Geographic
Foundation – focused on understanding what was going on, lifestyle-wise,
in the “blue zones,” the areas of the world where people lived the
longest, healthiest lives.  Essential common factors were lots of daily
activity (but not rigorous “exercise” in the American sense), strong
social support systems, meaningful activities throughout life, largely
plant-based diets, moderate consumption of alcohol, and a few other
factors.  You can learn about Blue Zone research from many books and
articles; a good place to start is the website, https://www.bluezones.com/ (Links to an external site.).  You can also get a nice overview from the TED talk, which can be found at https://www.ted.com/playlists/227/talks_to_make_you_feel_good_ab (Links to an external site.).  All are worth viewing, but the one on Blue Zones (Dan Buettner’s talk) is the one to which I refer here.  

Second, I would like to explore the impact of poor nutrition – an
environment stressor, although most people do not think of what is in
their pantry as a source of stress – on mental health.  For many years,
we in the mental health professions have been well aware of the
importance of adequate Vitamin D, Magnesium, DHA and EPA, in particular,
on good mental functioning.  It’s a hard sell in a world where clients
want a quick fix via a prescription; suggesting that good nutrition,
adequate sleep, physical activity and, yes, mindfulness training and
CBT, will in fact actually heal depression, anxiety, OCD, and other
diagnoses means taking personal responsibility to implement changes. I’m
not suggesting anyone just toss their medications; I am stating that
research clearly supports that systemic changes in lifestyle support
good mental (and physical) functioning.  In January 2017, research was
published actually using healthy nutrition, versus the patients’ prior
diet (which the researchers called the “beige diet” or the “12-year-old
boy diet”). Instead of processed grains, pasta, pizza, bread-heavy,
fatty foods, patients ate a well-balanced diet with ample healthy fats,
minerals and vitamins, especially the B vitamins.  The results were
impressive – and quick.  

In reflecting on things like adequate strong social support, ample
opportunity for sustained activity (not strenuous activity, but instead
an active overall daily lifestyle), and proper nutrition, the
implications for difficulties in impoverished areas or even for average
income, working people in urban areas are significant.  Crowded
conditions, chronic exposure to noise, the effects of crime/the threat
of crime on physical activity and inadequate affordable healthy food
options are all environmental factors that combine to create chronic
stress on people, starting early in life.  The Blue Zone experiment in
which an entire town signed on to making lifestyle changes is an example
of how reduction in these stressors can have some immediate good
effect.  

More than just advice for already-healthy people, research points to
the impact of diet, exercise and stress management on well-being even
for those in crisis. Consider these recent findings: 

Exercise is shown to reduce brain inflammation in persons suffering a
first psychotic episode (Congress of the Schizophrenia International
Research Society (SIRS) 2019: Abstract F12. Presented April 12, 2019). 

Persons diagnosed with certain immune factors leading to gluten
sensitivity and diagnosed with schizophrenia, when put on a gluten-free
diet, had markedly reduce symptoms of schizophrenia within five weeks.
Most notably, the almost impossible-to-treat negative symptoms such as
anhedonia and blunted affect, were significantly reduced in that short
time period (Congress of the Schizophrenia International Research
Society (SIRS) 2019: Plenary Session. Presented April 12, 2019). 

Psychology is nearly useless if it is just theoretical speculation. 
Reflect on the implications of Blue Zones research for your own life;
how can you put scientific information on the effects of stress to work
to improve your well-being and the well-being of those close to you?
What small steps are practical and meaningful for you? How would you
measure whether or not making the effort to consistently make these
changes was worthwhile? If these changes make a positive difference,
what change might you consider adding next? 

References: 

Congress of the Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) 2019: Plenary Session. Presented April 12, 2019. 

Congress of the Schizophrenia International Research Society (SIRS) 2019: Abstract F12. Presented April 12, 2019. 

Week 2 – Assignment

Gender Differences In Early Development

Chapter 12 in the course textbook discusses the impacts of caregivers
and culture on gender development in early childhood. Based on the
textbook chapter and one peer-reviewed journal article, write a paper
discussing the gender differences in development from a psychoanalytic
and systems perspective.

Your paper should account for or reply to each of the following:

· Identify a gender development-related issue of critical importance to individuals and society.

· Summarize a psychoanalytic and a systems perspective approach to, and related positions on, this issue.

· Compare and contrast the two theories’ views on how gender
development occurs, identifying and explaining implications for
scholarly and professional practice.

· Present and defend your position as to which theory is most
relevant and valid with respect to your issue as you have explained it.

Your paper should be 1200-1600 words in length and support your
thinking by citing and integrating at least two peer-reviewed journal
articles and at least one real life example.

 

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