1.The step in the coagulation cascade that occurs just before the cross-linking that stabilizes the clot is
a) the activation of clotting factor IX.
b) the activation of clotting factor XII.
c) the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
d) the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
e) none of the above
2.What factors help prevent clot formation in intact blood vessels?
a) Endothelial cells have prostacyclin in their membranes, which block platelet adhesion.
b) Collagen is hidden unless a vessel is damaged, attracting platelets and promoting their adhesion.
c) Intact endothelial cells release nitric oxide, which inhibits platelet adhesion.
d) A and B
e) A, B and C
3.How would a decrease in the concentration of calcium ion in the blood affect the process of hemostasis?
a) platelet plugs would fail to form
b) coagulation would proceed more rapidly
c) retraction would occur prematurely
d) plasmin would fail to function
e) coagulation would proceed more slowly
4.The human enzyme that can digest the fibrin strands and cause erosion of the clot’s foundation is __________.
a) tissue plasminogen activator
5.Functions of the respiratory system do NOT include __________.
a) protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration, temperature changes, or other environmental variations
b) defending the respiratory system and other tissues from pathogenic invasion c) providing little surface area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood
d) moving air to and from the exchange surface
e) all of the above
6.During normal inspiration,
a) the scalenes and sternocleidomastoid muscles play a major role.
b) the diaphragm increases its curve.
c) the rib cage broadens in all directions.
d) A and B
e) A, B, and C
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